Types of layout in production management

It essentially refers to arranging and grouping of the machine which is used to produce goods. These are divided in following four types.

types layout

1.Process Layout

It is also called a functional layout it involves a grouping together of like machines in one department.

For e.g Machines performing drilling operations are installed in the drilling department, machines performing casting operations are grouped in the casting department etc.

Advantages 

a) Reduce investment on machines as they are general purpose machines.

b) Greater flexibility in the production

Disadvantages

a) There is difficulty in production control.

b) There is an accumulation of work in progress.

2) Product/Straight layout

It is also called a straight line layout it is used in serialized manufacturing. This involves the arrangement of a machine in one line depending on a sequence of operations the material is fed in one machine and finished product is received at the last machine.

Advantages

a) Here there is less material handling because of special purpose machinery

b) There is proper production control

Disadvantages

a) Failure of one machine will result in stoppage of the entire production system.

b) There is less flexibility.

3. Fixed Position Layout

It involves a movement of men & machinery to the product which remains stationary. In this type of layout, the material or major components remain in a fixed position & tools, machinery & men are brought to this location. This type is used in the manufacturing of bulky & heavy products such as locomotives, ship, boiler, aircraft etc.

Advantages 

a) Men & Machines can be used for a wide variety of operation producing a different product.

b) The investment is very small.

4.Combination Layout

The application of product, process or fixed location layout in strict meaning is difficult to come across. A combination of product & process layout with an emphasis is noticed in most industrial establishments Plants are never laid out in either pure form. It is possible to have both types of layout in an efficiently combined form if the product manufactured is somewhat similar & not complex.

 

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